earthstory:

Another dizzying Vine video from Astronaut Reid Wiseman onboard the International Space Station. This one is just a time-lapse of his average view, with Europe and Asia moving through the frame.

spaceplasma:

One Special Day in the Life of Planet Earth

The cameras on NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this rare look at Earth and its moon from Saturn orbit on July 19, 2013. Taken while performing a large wide-angle mosaic of the entire Saturn ring system, narrow-angle camera images were deliberately inserted into the sequence in order to image Earth and its moon. This is the second time that Cassini has imaged Earth from within Saturn’s shadow, and only the third time ever that our planet has been imaged from the outer solar system. Earth is the blue point of light on the left; the moon is fainter, white, and on the right. Both are seen here through the faint, diffuse E ring of Saturn. Earth was brighter than the estimated brightness used to calculate the narrow-angle camera exposure times. Hence, information derived from the wide-angle camera images was used to process this color composite. Both Earth and the moon have been increased in brightness for easy visibility; in addition, brightness of the Moon has been increased relative to the Earth, and the brightness of the E ring has been increased as well.
The first image of Earth captured from the outer solar system was taken by NASA’s Voyager 1 in 1990 and famously titled “Pale Blue Dot”. Sixteen years later, in 2006, Cassini imaged the Earth in the stunning and unique mosaic of Saturn called “In Saturn’s Shadow-The Pale Blue Dot”. And, seven years further along, Cassini did it again in a coordinated event that became the first time that Earth’s inhabitants knew in advance that they were being imaged from nearly a billion miles (nearly 1.5 billion kilometers) away. It was the also the first time that Cassini’s highest-resolution camera was employed so that Earth and its moon could be captured as two distinct targets.


Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI
Zoom Info
spaceplasma:

One Special Day in the Life of Planet Earth

The cameras on NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this rare look at Earth and its moon from Saturn orbit on July 19, 2013. Taken while performing a large wide-angle mosaic of the entire Saturn ring system, narrow-angle camera images were deliberately inserted into the sequence in order to image Earth and its moon. This is the second time that Cassini has imaged Earth from within Saturn’s shadow, and only the third time ever that our planet has been imaged from the outer solar system. Earth is the blue point of light on the left; the moon is fainter, white, and on the right. Both are seen here through the faint, diffuse E ring of Saturn. Earth was brighter than the estimated brightness used to calculate the narrow-angle camera exposure times. Hence, information derived from the wide-angle camera images was used to process this color composite. Both Earth and the moon have been increased in brightness for easy visibility; in addition, brightness of the Moon has been increased relative to the Earth, and the brightness of the E ring has been increased as well.
The first image of Earth captured from the outer solar system was taken by NASA’s Voyager 1 in 1990 and famously titled “Pale Blue Dot”. Sixteen years later, in 2006, Cassini imaged the Earth in the stunning and unique mosaic of Saturn called “In Saturn’s Shadow-The Pale Blue Dot”. And, seven years further along, Cassini did it again in a coordinated event that became the first time that Earth’s inhabitants knew in advance that they were being imaged from nearly a billion miles (nearly 1.5 billion kilometers) away. It was the also the first time that Cassini’s highest-resolution camera was employed so that Earth and its moon could be captured as two distinct targets.


Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI
Zoom Info
spaceplasma:

One Special Day in the Life of Planet Earth

The cameras on NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this rare look at Earth and its moon from Saturn orbit on July 19, 2013. Taken while performing a large wide-angle mosaic of the entire Saturn ring system, narrow-angle camera images were deliberately inserted into the sequence in order to image Earth and its moon. This is the second time that Cassini has imaged Earth from within Saturn’s shadow, and only the third time ever that our planet has been imaged from the outer solar system. Earth is the blue point of light on the left; the moon is fainter, white, and on the right. Both are seen here through the faint, diffuse E ring of Saturn. Earth was brighter than the estimated brightness used to calculate the narrow-angle camera exposure times. Hence, information derived from the wide-angle camera images was used to process this color composite. Both Earth and the moon have been increased in brightness for easy visibility; in addition, brightness of the Moon has been increased relative to the Earth, and the brightness of the E ring has been increased as well.
The first image of Earth captured from the outer solar system was taken by NASA’s Voyager 1 in 1990 and famously titled “Pale Blue Dot”. Sixteen years later, in 2006, Cassini imaged the Earth in the stunning and unique mosaic of Saturn called “In Saturn’s Shadow-The Pale Blue Dot”. And, seven years further along, Cassini did it again in a coordinated event that became the first time that Earth’s inhabitants knew in advance that they were being imaged from nearly a billion miles (nearly 1.5 billion kilometers) away. It was the also the first time that Cassini’s highest-resolution camera was employed so that Earth and its moon could be captured as two distinct targets.


Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI
Zoom Info

spaceplasma:

One Special Day in the Life of Planet Earth

The cameras on NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured this rare look at Earth and its moon from Saturn orbit on July 19, 2013. Taken while performing a large wide-angle mosaic of the entire Saturn ring system, narrow-angle camera images were deliberately inserted into the sequence in order to image Earth and its moon. This is the second time that Cassini has imaged Earth from within Saturn’s shadow, and only the third time ever that our planet has been imaged from the outer solar system.

Earth is the blue point of light on the left; the moon is fainter, white, and on the right. Both are seen here through the faint, diffuse E ring of Saturn. Earth was brighter than the estimated brightness used to calculate the narrow-angle camera exposure times. Hence, information derived from the wide-angle camera images was used to process this color composite.

Both Earth and the moon have been increased in brightness for easy visibility; in addition, brightness of the Moon has been increased relative to the Earth, and the brightness of the E ring has been increased as well.

The first image of Earth captured from the outer solar system was taken by NASA’s Voyager 1 in 1990 and famously titled “Pale Blue Dot”. Sixteen years later, in 2006, Cassini imaged the Earth in the stunning and unique mosaic of Saturn called “In Saturn’s Shadow-The Pale Blue Dot”. And, seven years further along, Cassini did it again in a coordinated event that became the first time that Earth’s inhabitants knew in advance that they were being imaged from nearly a billion miles (nearly 1.5 billion kilometers) away. It was the also the first time that Cassini’s highest-resolution camera was employed so that Earth and its moon could be captured as two distinct targets.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI

for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info
for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info
for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info
for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info
for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info
for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth. 

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.
Zoom Info

for-all-mankind:

A Foton M4 space capsule launches on a Soyuz 2-1a rocket at 2:50 am local time, Saturday, 19 July, 2014. The capsule carries animals and other experiments to study the affects of microgravity. At the end of its two month mission, it shall return to Earth.

Similar in design to the Bion series of biological experiment satellites, the Foton series use recently capsules near the design of the original Soviet Vostok capsules.

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 
[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.
Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 
The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram
Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.
During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.

spaceplasma:

xysciences:

A gif representing nuclear fusion and how it creates energy. 

[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

For those who don’t understand the GIF. It illustrates the Deuterium-Tritium fusion; a deuterium and tritium combine to form a helium-4. Most of the energy released is in the form of the high-energy neutron.

Nuclear fusion has the potential to generate power without the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (energy from splitting heavy atoms  into smaller atoms), but that depends on which atoms you decide to fuse. Hydrogen has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted ¹H, ²H, and ³H. Deuterium (²H) - Tritium (³H) fusion (pictured above) appears to be the best and most effective way to produce energy. Atoms that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes (adding a proton makes a new element, but adding a neutron makes an isotope of the same atom). 

The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (no neutrons, just one proton, hence the name), deuterium (deuterium comes from the Greek word deuteros, which means “second”, this is in reference two the two particles, a proton and a neutron), and tritium (the name of this comes from the Greek word “tritos” meaning “third”, because guess what, it contains one proton and two neutrons). Here’s a diagram

Deuterium is abundant, it can be extracted from seawater, but tritium is a  radioactive isotope and must be either derived(bred) from lithium or obtained in the operation of the deuterium cycle. Tritium is also produced naturally in the upper atmosphere when cosmic rays strike nitrogen molecules in the air, but that’s extremely rare. It’s also a by product in reactors producing electricity (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant). Tritium is a low energy beta emitter (unable to penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin), it has a relatively long half life and short biological half life. It is not dangerous externally, however emissions from inhaled or ingested beta particle emitters pose a significant health risk.

During fusion (energy from combining light elements to form heavier ones), two atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium must be brought so close together that they fuse in spite of the strongly repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged nuclei. So, in order to accomplish nuclear fusion, the two nuclei must first overcome the electric repulsion (coulomb barrier ) to get close enough for the attractive nuclear strong force (force that binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei) to take over to fuse the particles. The D-T reaction is the easiest to bring about, it has the lowest energy requirement compared to energy release. The reaction products are helium-4 (the helium isotope) – also called the alpha particle, which carries 1/5 (3.5 MeV) of the total fusion energy in the form of kinetic energy, and a neutron, which carries 4/5 (14.1 MeV). Don’t be alarmed by the alpha particle, the particles are not dangerous in themselves, it is only because of the high speeds at which they are ejected from the nuclei that make them dangerous, but unlike beta or gamma radiation, they are stopped by a piece of paper.